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Some USB devices require a lot of power: They should be 5v mA each max, any more than this they must be used with a powered USB hub.

Try unplugging every USB device except the keyboard you should also note that some keyboards have built in hubs and can try to draw mA Pi can only handle mA per USB slot without a hub.

Also, use the latest software. Forum user MrEngman reported some keyboard repeats and wireless hangs until upgrading to the debian kernel, which he reports stable with no problems even with a low TP1-TP2 voltage of 4.

One suggested remedy to this, which has some positive feedback, is to adjust the USB bus speed. To do this, you need to edit the cmdline.

Worst case scenario, some advanced keyboards, such as the Roccat Arvo, have kernel modules that need activating. If you have access to another keyboard temporarily, you will need to modprobe the relevent driver.

Or if this is not possible, you can rebuild the kernel instructions available on the wiki page with the modules installed. Many wireless keyboards are known to have "sticky keys" on the R-Pi.

Work has recently summer been done on the USB code. Updating to a recent firmware might help. Updating the firmware can be done with rpi-update.

Recent Raspbian releases comes with rpi-update installed. On April 30 , there was a bugfix [11] relating to USB sharing between high-speed eg.

On , user spennig was pleased to confirm that wifi was working with a USB keyboard and mouse, as long as the Raspberry Pi had a good PSU and a powered hub.

Even so, some experimentation was needed, e. USB WiFi connected to the device, and the keyboard and mouse connected to the powered hub.

Some experimentation may be necessary to find a working combination; however a good power supply is essential. My experience regarding this issue point to interferences in the 2.

Changing the channel on the wireless access point fixed the problem completely. Some wireless keyboards, for example the Microsoft Wireless Keyboard are reported to fail [14] even though the current drawn by the wireless adaptor is within the R-Pi USB spec limit of mA.

This may be a software driver problem. If different letters appear on-screen from that which you typed, you need to reconfigure you keyboard settings.

In Debian, from a command line type:. If you have remapped your keyboard and get a very long delay during the keyboard mapping at startup, type the following once on the command line after you have logged in:.

There has been more than one report [15] [16] [17] of a R-Pi booting but not getting USB input, using a known-good power supply, SD card, and keyboard.

Or return the board for a replacement, but before making this conclusion, confirm known good peripherals.

As of June 1 , Eben reported [18] that only about 1 in shipped R-Pi boards have been found to have a hardware fault of any kind.

Use the excellent guvcview program to test your webcam and to change the capture settings. You can improve the frame rate to a great extent by changing the settings.

Using the latest firmware version may help various problems with SD card and display compatibility. Check the kernel version with:. The GPU firmware and kernel can be updated with Hexxeh's rpi-update tool.

However this requires the Pi to be successfully booted. With sdcard problems, you may not get that far, so can try a manual udpate. If you have a Linux machine, rpi-update can be run on that in an offline mode.

Use this to download rpi-update:. You can download the latest GPU firmware version here. Click on view raw , then save it, and put the new start. Similarly, the latest kernel is here.

After updating these files you should be able to boot. As this noting system was causing trouble if the amount of RAM was not always the same.

Make sure your editor doesn't change the first letter of the line into an uppercase letter, as some editors do. The entry is case sensitive. Luckily, if you have this problem, most built-in card readers are easy to pull apart and repair; some users have even reported succesfully unjamming the switch with a blast of compressed air from a can into the SD-card slot without having to dislodge anything.

You may also be able to temporarily get round the problem by putting the write-protect tab in a half-way position - this pushes on a different part of the strip and may break the contact - it's worth trying a few, slightly different positions.

This is often caused by inadequate power. More often than not, however, the reverse is true with cheap hubs—the Pi draws just enough power backwards from the powered hub to unsuccessfully attempt booting.

There is an ongoing issue with the Ethernet connection being lost when low-speed devices, such as mice or keyboards are connected via a powered USB hub.

The simplest way to solve this is to connect your mouse and keyboard directly into the 2 USB ports on the R-Pi assuming they draw less than mA apiece.

The LED in the corner of the board labelled "10M" is mislabeled on the rev 1. It is correctly labeled "" on the rev 2. You can confirm the true transfer rate using a network benchmark such as iperf.

You can also read the current network speed with:. In the Debian image, ssh is disabled by default.

This is too hot to touch for more than a few seconds, but it is not unusually hot for the chip. The LAN data sheet in Table 4.

It uses mW at 3. Estudio de sus temperaturas en funcionamiento Is the Raspberry Pi computer getting hot? A study of its operational temperature.

The Spanish article has numerous color temperature images of RasPi in various operational modes, with the highest LAN case temperature measured as The USB driver allocates memory from the kernel, and when traffic is very high e.

Crashes with high network load can also be related to your power supply, try a powered usb hub. You should have a line like:.

Try increasing that number to If the above fixes do not work, you can prevent the crashes by limiting the bandwidth This is also working sometimes if the crashes are related to power supply.

The network connection may fail when the command startx is used to enter a Graphical User Interface. As of 1 September , this fault is fixed in the latest firmware.

To load the latest firmware, see http: Please check the page http: While using Debian, some programs may ask for your password but refuse to accept a valid password.

This is a fault in old Debian images previous to September If you are using an image with this fault, upgrade to a more modern image or enter the following command on the command line.

Please enter this command carefully, the spaces are important. The command should be accepted without any response or errors. There is no root password set by default on Debian.

You are expected to do everything through sudo. You can set one with "sudo passwd root" - just make sure you know what you are doing with a root account.

Firstly, it seems that some HD TVs mute audible sound output when there is no digital input, and slowly fade the sound up and down at the start and end of digital input.

This means that short duration sounds will not be heard. A work around is to play longer duration wav files. Secondly, it seems that some HD TVs mute audible sound output when there is only one channel of digital input.

ALSA aplay uses the file information header to configure its digital output. And the aplay -c 2 option does not over-ride the settings aplay picks up from the file information header.

So, if your HD TV doesn't accept just one channel of digital input, you cannot use aplay to hear a mono wav file. However, with the command speaker-test, the -c2 option does work, and sets 2 channels in the digital stream.

But note that the command speaker-test seems only to like mono wav files, and seems not to play stereo wav files. The command aplay plays 2 channel stereo wav files in stereo sound without problem provided they last longer than the time it takes the TV to unmute and remute.

If no sound is being produced, and alsamixer is unable to show you any controls, the GPU may have disabled audio.

Run this command to check:. This issue can be experienced when upgrading the kernel, due to changes in how the device tree defaulting has changed.

This can be unused along with other 'dtparam' settings, on the same line or different lines. Reboot, then check the amixer command again.

Enter the command 'alsamixer' and use the control to check that the volume is up arrow keys and that the output is not muted M key.

To install support for sound, type the following from a command line from the command prompt before "startx" or in a terminal window.

By default output will be automatic hdmi if hdmi supports audio, otherwise analogue. You can force it with:. Also note that you may have to add your user to the 'audio' group to get permission to access the sound card.

Between December and February the standard raspbian wheezy distribution, and apt-get upgrade, included pulseaudio. Forum posts suggest that pulseaudio can break alsa.

Whilst some members identify various workarounds, others find only removal of pulseaudio restores sound output. The alsa app included in the standard distribution plays wav files.

If you want to play mp3 files, do the following to install an mp3 player after installing alsa-utils:. By default there are only a few hundred MB free in the 2 GB main partition, which can quickly fill up if you download files.

Also, installing some software may incorrectly create or modify a. Xauthority file in your home directory, causing startx to fail, according to this thread.

Temporarily renaming, moving, or deleting that file may fix the problem. Check and see if the DVI cable is screwed in properly.

If that doesn't work then try this section. The only hardware-accelerated video player is in the XBMC distribution and its command line variant omxplayer.

H is the only hardware-accelerated codec, for playback. No hardware encoding is supported. Additional codecs were not purchased as licensing fees would have increased the R-Pi's price.

Notwithstanding the previous paragraph, omxplayer may be included in some versions of raspbian. It is a command line tool, and happily plays.

Known issue with distro package as of 17th April - there's some missing boot config information. Creating a suitable cmdline.

Out of the box, R-Pi graphics don't necessarily fill the whole screen. This is due to something called "Underscan", and it can be fixed easily.

Check the display menu options it may be called "just scan", "screen fit", "HD size", "full pixel", "unscaled", "dot by dot", "native" or "1: Making the R-Pi graphics fill the screen is a matter of experimenting with the numbers you put in the config.

Change the numbers — try jumps of 5 or 10 at a time. Scanning documents in this manner requires a steady hand, as an uneven scanning rate produces distorted images; an indicator light on the scanner indicates if motion is too fast.

They typically have a "start" button, which is held by the user for the duration of the scan; some switches to set the optical resolution ; and a roller, which generates a clock pulse for synchronization with the computer.

Older hand scanners were monochrome , and produced light from an array of green LEDs to illuminate the image"; [7] later ones scan in monochrome or color, as desired.

A hand scanner may have a small window through which the document being scanned could be viewed. In the early s many hand scanners had a proprietary interface module specific to a particular type of computer, such as an Atari ST or Commodore Amiga.

Since the introduction of the USB standard, it is the interface most commonly used. As hand scanners are much narrower than most normal document or book sizes, software or the end user needed to combine several narrow "strips" of scanned document to produce the finished article.

Inexpensive portable battery-powered "glide-over" hand scanners, typically capable of scanning an area as wide as a normal letter and much longer remain available as of [update].

Handheld 3D scanners are used in industrial design, reverse engineering, inspection and analysis, digital manufacturing and medical applications.

Image scanners are usually used in conjunction with a computer which controls the scanner and stores scans. Small portable scanners, either roller-fed or "glide-over" hand -operated, operated by batteries and with storage capability, are available for use away from a computer; stored scans can be transferred later.

Many can scan both small documents such as business cards and till receipts, and letter-sized documents. The higher-resolution cameras fitted to some smartphones can produce reasonable quality document scans by taking a photograph with the phone's camera and post-processing it with a scanning app, a range of which are available for most phone operating systems , to whiten the background of a page, correct perspective distortion so that the shape of a rectangular document is corrected, convert to black-and-white, etc.

Many such apps can scan multiple-page documents with successive camera exposures and output them either as a single file or multiple page files.

Some smartphone scanning apps can save documents directly to online storage locations, such as Dropbox and Evernote , send via email or fax documents via email-to-fax gateways.

Color scanners typically read RGB red-green-blue color data from the array. Color depth varies depending on the scanning array characteristics, but is usually at least 24 bits.

High quality models have bits of color depth. Another qualifying parameter for a scanner is its resolution , measured in pixels per inch ppi , sometimes more accurately referred to as Samples per inch spi.

Instead of using the scanner's true optical resolution , the only meaningful parameter, manufacturers like to refer to the interpolated resolution , which is much higher thanks to software interpolation.

As of [update] , a high-end flatbed scanner can scan up to ppi and drum scanners have an optical resolution of between 3, and 24, ppi.

The effective resolution of most all consumer flatbed scanners is considerably lower than the manufactures' given optical resolution. Manufacturers often claim interpolated resolutions as high as 19, ppi; but such numbers carry little meaningful value, because the number of possible interpolated pixels is unlimited and doing so does not increase the level of captured detail.

The size of the file created increases with the square of the resolution; doubling the resolution quadruples the file size.

A resolution must be chosen that is within the capabilities of the equipment, preserves sufficient detail, and does not produce a file of excessive size.

The file size can be reduced for a given resolution by using "lossy" compression methods such as JPEG , at some cost in quality.

If the best possible quality is required lossless compression should be used; reduced-quality files of smaller size can be produced from such an image when required e.

Purity can be diminished by scanner noise, optical flare, poor analog to digital conversion, scratches, dust, Newton's rings , out of focus sensors, improper scanner operation, and poor software.

Drum scanners are said to produce the purest digital representations of the film, followed by high end film scanners that use the larger Kodak Tri-Linear sensors.

The third important parameter for a scanner is its density range Dynamic Range or Drange see Densitometry. A high density range means that the scanner is able to record shadow details and brightness details in one scan.

Density of film is measured on a base 10 log scale and varies between 0. The density range of negative film is up to 3. Dmax will be the densest on slide film for shadows, and densest on negative film for highlights.

Some slide films can have a Dmax close to 4. Consumer-level flatbed photo scanners have a dynamic range in the 2. Color film compresses its 12 stops of a possible 16 stops film latitude into just 2.

Kodak Vision 3 has 18 stops. So, color negative film scans the easiest of all film types on the widest range of scanners.

Because traditional black-and-white film retains the image creating silver after processing, density range can be almost twice that of color film.

This makes scanning traditional black-and-white film more difficult and requires a scanner with at least a 3. High-end photo lab flatbed scanners can reach a dynamic range of 3.

Dedicated film scanners [14] have a dynamic range between 3. By combining full-color imagery with 3D models, modern hand-held scanners are able to completely reproduce objects electronically.

The addition of 3D color printers enables accurate miniaturization of these objects, with applications across many industries and professions.

For scanner apps, the scan quality is highly dependent on the quality of the phone camera and on the framing chosen by the user of the app. Scans must virtually always be transferred from the scanner to a computer or information storage system for further processing or storage.

There are two basic issues: The file size of a scan can be up to about megabytes for a DPI 23 x 28 cm 9"x11" slightly larger than A4 paper uncompressed bit image.

Scanned files must be transferred and stored. Scanners can generate this volume of data in a matter of seconds, making a fast connection desirable.

Scanners communicate to their host computer using one of the following physical interfaces, listing roughly from slow to fast:. During the early s professional flatbed scanners were available over a local computer network.

This proved useful to publishers, print shops, etc. This functionality largely fell out of use as the cost of flatbed scanners reduced enough to make sharing unnecessary.

From all-in-one multi-purpose devices became available which were suitable for both small offices and consumers, with printing, scanning, copying, and fax capability in a single apparatus which can be made available to all members of a workgroup.

Battery-powered portable scanners store scans on internal memory; they can later be transferred to a computer either by direct connection, typically USB, or in some cases a memory card may be removed from the scanner and plugged into the computer.

There are many different scanners, and many of those scanners use different protocols. In order to simplify applications programming, some Applications programming interfaces "API" were developed.

The API presents a uniform interface to the scanner. This means that the application does not need to know the specific details of the scanner in order to access it directly.

In practice, there are often problems with an application communicating with a scanner. Either the application or the scanner manufacturer or both may have faults in their implementation of the API.

Typically, the API is implemented as a dynamically linked library. The manufacturer's part of the API is commonly called a device driver , but that designation is not strictly accurate: Rather the scanner API library translates application requests into hardware requests.

This allows batch scans and transparent network access without any special support from the device driver. TWAIN is used by most scanners.

Originally used for low-end and home-use equipment, it is now widely used for large-volume scanning. Although no software beyond a scanning utility is a feature of any scanner, many scanners come bundled with software.

Typically, in addition to the scanning utility, some type of image-editing application such as Adobe Photoshop , and optical character recognition OCR software are supplied.

OCR software converts graphical images of text into standard text that can be edited using common word-processing and text-editing software; accuracy is rarely perfect.

Some scanners, especially those designed for scanning printed documents, only work in black-and-white but most modern scanners work in color. For the latter, the scanned result is a non-compressed RGB image, which can be transferred to a computer's memory.

The color output of different scanners is not the same due to the spectral response of their sensing elements, the nature of their light source and the correction applied by the scanning software.

While most image sensors have a linear response, the output values are usually gamma compressed. Some scanners compress and clean up the image using embedded firmware.

Once on the computer, the image can be processed with a raster graphics program such as Adobe Photoshop or the GIMP and saved on a storage device such as a hard disk.

Images are usually stored on a hard disk. Optical character recognition OCR software allows a scanned image of text to be converted into editable text with reasonable accuracy, so long as the text is cleanly printed and in a typeface and size that can be read by the software.

OCR capability may be integrated into the scanning software, or the scanned image file can be processed with a separate OCR program.

Document imaging requirements differ from those of image scanning. These requirements include scanning speed, automated paper feed, and the ability to automatically scan both the front and the back of a document.

On the other hand, image scanning typically requires the ability to handle fragile and or three dimensional objects as well as scan at a much higher resolution.

Document scanners have document feeders , usually larger than those sometimes found on copiers or all-purpose scanners.

Scans are made at high speed, from 20 up to [16] or [17] pages per minute, often in grayscale, although many scanners support color.

Many scanners can scan both sides of double-sided originals duplex operation. Sophisticated document scanners have firmware or software that cleans up scans of text as they are produced, eliminating accidental marks and sharpening type; this would be unacceptable for photographic work, where marks cannot reliably be distinguished from desired fine detail.

Files created are compressed as they are made. The resolution used is usually from to dpi , although the hardware may be capable of [17] or higher resolution; this produces images of text good enough to read and for optical character recognition OCR , without the higher demands on storage space required by higher-resolution images.

Document scans are often processed using OCR technology to create editable and searchable files. Lossy JPEG compression, which is very efficient for pictures, is undesirable for text documents, as slanted straight edges take on a jagged appearance, and solid black or other color text on a light background compresses well with lossless compression formats.

While paper feeding and scanning can be done automatically and quickly, preparation and indexing are necessary and require much work by humans.

Preparation involves manually inspecting the papers to be scanned and making sure that they are in order, unfolded, without staples or anything else that might jam the scanner.

Indexing involves associating relevant keywords to files so that they can be retrieved by content. This process can sometimes be automated to some extent, but it often requires manual labour performed by data-entry clerks.

One common practice is the use of barcode -recognition technology: Using automatic batch scanning, the documents are saved into appropriate folders, and an index is created for integration into document-management systems.

A specialized form of document scanning is book scanning.

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A good power supply that will supply 5 volts and at least 1 amp 5V 1A is vital. A 5 volt 2 amp power supply can help some wifi USB adapters run more stable.

A blinking red power LED indicates problems with the power supply. On model A and B, it is hard-wired to the 3. If it is blinking, as one user has reported [1] it means the 5V power supply is dropping out.

Use a different power supply. If it does, the LED will blink. Check your connections, cable, and power supply.

Start off by reading the "Is your Pi not booting? A faintly glowing steady green LED means no boot code has ever been executed , as almost the first thing the boot code does is to turn the faint glow off!

Note also there is a difference between the quad core Pi 2 BCM and the other models if there is no SD card inserted, or the SD card is improperly formatted.

The former will have both red and green lights on bright and steady. The latter will have only the red light on. According to this forum post the green light will blink in a specific pattern to indicate some types of errors:.

Note that 4-flashes may point to a defective SD-card holder, if one or more of the data contacts is intermittent it can lead to this problem.

With current firmware, a coloured splash screen actually its just four pixels "blown up" by the GPU to full screen is displayed after GPU firmware start.

This should be replaced by linux console a second later. However if the coloured screen remains, it suggests the kernel. Try replacing it with a known good one.

Immediately after displaying the splash screen, the PI starts consuming a little more current. If the PI resets at that moment, it is an indication that the power supply isn't able to deliver the full current your PI requires, but dips its output voltage below a minimum when loaded with the full current the PI needs.

You can open config. Don't forget to 'eject' the card before removing it from the reader. Text appears on screen, but then hangs with debug messages.

This can be caused by USB devices such as keyboards. Try again with nothing in the USB. This is caused by a power supply producing too low a voltage.

This has been reported several times [6] [7] [8] and remains an open issue. Low voltage or an improper SD card can cause it.

Some SD cards will work until they warm up slightly, and then fail [9]. When exposed to 21 C room temperature the warmest part of an uncased working R-Pi should be 41 C [10].

The wiki has a list of working SD cards. This is most often caused by inadequate power. Use a good power supply and a good power cable.

Some cheap cables that work with a cell phone, cannot fully power the R-Pi. Some USB devices require a lot of power: They should be 5v mA each max, any more than this they must be used with a powered USB hub.

Try unplugging every USB device except the keyboard you should also note that some keyboards have built in hubs and can try to draw mA Pi can only handle mA per USB slot without a hub.

Also, use the latest software. Forum user MrEngman reported some keyboard repeats and wireless hangs until upgrading to the debian kernel, which he reports stable with no problems even with a low TP1-TP2 voltage of 4.

One suggested remedy to this, which has some positive feedback, is to adjust the USB bus speed. To do this, you need to edit the cmdline. Worst case scenario, some advanced keyboards, such as the Roccat Arvo, have kernel modules that need activating.

If you have access to another keyboard temporarily, you will need to modprobe the relevent driver. Or if this is not possible, you can rebuild the kernel instructions available on the wiki page with the modules installed.

Many wireless keyboards are known to have "sticky keys" on the R-Pi. Work has recently summer been done on the USB code.

Updating to a recent firmware might help. Updating the firmware can be done with rpi-update. Recent Raspbian releases comes with rpi-update installed.

On April 30 , there was a bugfix [11] relating to USB sharing between high-speed eg. On , user spennig was pleased to confirm that wifi was working with a USB keyboard and mouse, as long as the Raspberry Pi had a good PSU and a powered hub.

Even so, some experimentation was needed, e. USB WiFi connected to the device, and the keyboard and mouse connected to the powered hub. Some experimentation may be necessary to find a working combination; however a good power supply is essential.

My experience regarding this issue point to interferences in the 2. Changing the channel on the wireless access point fixed the problem completely.

Some wireless keyboards, for example the Microsoft Wireless Keyboard are reported to fail [14] even though the current drawn by the wireless adaptor is within the R-Pi USB spec limit of mA.

This may be a software driver problem. If different letters appear on-screen from that which you typed, you need to reconfigure you keyboard settings.

In Debian, from a command line type:. If you have remapped your keyboard and get a very long delay during the keyboard mapping at startup, type the following once on the command line after you have logged in:.

There has been more than one report [15] [16] [17] of a R-Pi booting but not getting USB input, using a known-good power supply, SD card, and keyboard.

Or return the board for a replacement, but before making this conclusion, confirm known good peripherals.

As of June 1 , Eben reported [18] that only about 1 in shipped R-Pi boards have been found to have a hardware fault of any kind.

Use the excellent guvcview program to test your webcam and to change the capture settings. You can improve the frame rate to a great extent by changing the settings.

Using the latest firmware version may help various problems with SD card and display compatibility.

Check the kernel version with:. The GPU firmware and kernel can be updated with Hexxeh's rpi-update tool. However this requires the Pi to be successfully booted.

With sdcard problems, you may not get that far, so can try a manual udpate. If you have a Linux machine, rpi-update can be run on that in an offline mode.

Use this to download rpi-update:. You can download the latest GPU firmware version here. Click on view raw , then save it, and put the new start.

Similarly, the latest kernel is here. After updating these files you should be able to boot. As this noting system was causing trouble if the amount of RAM was not always the same.

Make sure your editor doesn't change the first letter of the line into an uppercase letter, as some editors do. The entry is case sensitive. Luckily, if you have this problem, most built-in card readers are easy to pull apart and repair; some users have even reported succesfully unjamming the switch with a blast of compressed air from a can into the SD-card slot without having to dislodge anything.

You may also be able to temporarily get round the problem by putting the write-protect tab in a half-way position - this pushes on a different part of the strip and may break the contact - it's worth trying a few, slightly different positions.

This is often caused by inadequate power. More often than not, however, the reverse is true with cheap hubs—the Pi draws just enough power backwards from the powered hub to unsuccessfully attempt booting.

There is an ongoing issue with the Ethernet connection being lost when low-speed devices, such as mice or keyboards are connected via a powered USB hub.

The simplest way to solve this is to connect your mouse and keyboard directly into the 2 USB ports on the R-Pi assuming they draw less than mA apiece.

The LED in the corner of the board labelled "10M" is mislabeled on the rev 1. It is correctly labeled "" on the rev 2.

You can confirm the true transfer rate using a network benchmark such as iperf. You can also read the current network speed with:.

In the Debian image, ssh is disabled by default. This is too hot to touch for more than a few seconds, but it is not unusually hot for the chip.

The LAN data sheet in Table 4. It uses mW at 3. Estudio de sus temperaturas en funcionamiento Is the Raspberry Pi computer getting hot?

A study of its operational temperature. The Spanish article has numerous color temperature images of RasPi in various operational modes, with the highest LAN case temperature measured as The USB driver allocates memory from the kernel, and when traffic is very high e.

Crashes with high network load can also be related to your power supply, try a powered usb hub. You should have a line like:. Try increasing that number to If the above fixes do not work, you can prevent the crashes by limiting the bandwidth This is also working sometimes if the crashes are related to power supply.

The network connection may fail when the command startx is used to enter a Graphical User Interface. As of 1 September , this fault is fixed in the latest firmware.

To load the latest firmware, see http: Please check the page http: While using Debian, some programs may ask for your password but refuse to accept a valid password.

This is a fault in old Debian images previous to September If you are using an image with this fault, upgrade to a more modern image or enter the following command on the command line.

Please enter this command carefully, the spaces are important. The command should be accepted without any response or errors.

There is no root password set by default on Debian. You are expected to do everything through sudo. You can set one with "sudo passwd root" - just make sure you know what you are doing with a root account.

Firstly, it seems that some HD TVs mute audible sound output when there is no digital input, and slowly fade the sound up and down at the start and end of digital input.

This means that short duration sounds will not be heard. A work around is to play longer duration wav files. Secondly, it seems that some HD TVs mute audible sound output when there is only one channel of digital input.

ALSA aplay uses the file information header to configure its digital output. And the aplay -c 2 option does not over-ride the settings aplay picks up from the file information header.

So, if your HD TV doesn't accept just one channel of digital input, you cannot use aplay to hear a mono wav file.

However, with the command speaker-test, the -c2 option does work, and sets 2 channels in the digital stream. But note that the command speaker-test seems only to like mono wav files, and seems not to play stereo wav files.

While prices of both new and used units dropped from the start of the 21st century, they were still much more costly than CCD flatbed and film scanners.

Image quality produced by flatbed scanners had improved to the degree that the best ones were suitable for many graphic-arts operations, and they replaced drum scanners in many cases as they were less expensive and faster.

However, drum scanners with their superior resolution up to 24, PPI , color gradation, and value structure continued to be used for scanning images to be enlarged, and for museum-quality archiving of photographs and print production of high-quality books and magazine advertisements.

As second-hand drum scanners became more plentiful and less costly, many fine-art photographers acquired them.

This type of scanner is sometimes called a reflective scanner because it works by shining white light onto the object to be scanned and reading the intensity and color of light that is reflected from it, usually a line at a time.

They are designed for scanning prints or other flat, opaque materials but some have available transparency adapters, which for a number of reasons, in most cases, are not very well suited to scanning film.

CCD-type scanners typically contain three rows arrays of sensors with red, green, and blue filters. Contact image sensor CIS scanning consists of a moving set of red, green and blue LEDs strobed for illumination and a connected monochromatic photodiode array under a rod lens array for light collection.

An image is therefore visible to the detector only because of the light it reflects. Transparent images do not work in this way, and require special accessories that illuminate them from the upper side.

Many scanners offer this as an option. This type of scanner is sometimes called a slide or transparency scanner and it works by passing a narrowly focused beam of light through the film and reading the intensity and color of the light that emerges.

Some models are mainly used for same-size scans. Film scanners vary a great deal in price and quality.

From there they inch up in staggered levels of quality and advanced features upward of five figures. Scanners are available that pull a flat sheet over the scanning element between rotating rollers.

Some are portable , powered by batteries and with their own storage, eventually transferring stored scans to a computer over a USB or other interface.

Hand scanners are moved over the subject to be imaged by hand. There are two different types: Hand-held document scanners are manual devices that are dragged across the surface of the image to be scanned by hand.

Scanning documents in this manner requires a steady hand, as an uneven scanning rate produces distorted images; an indicator light on the scanner indicates if motion is too fast.

They typically have a "start" button, which is held by the user for the duration of the scan; some switches to set the optical resolution ; and a roller, which generates a clock pulse for synchronization with the computer.

Older hand scanners were monochrome , and produced light from an array of green LEDs to illuminate the image"; [7] later ones scan in monochrome or color, as desired.

A hand scanner may have a small window through which the document being scanned could be viewed. In the early s many hand scanners had a proprietary interface module specific to a particular type of computer, such as an Atari ST or Commodore Amiga.

Since the introduction of the USB standard, it is the interface most commonly used. As hand scanners are much narrower than most normal document or book sizes, software or the end user needed to combine several narrow "strips" of scanned document to produce the finished article.

Inexpensive portable battery-powered "glide-over" hand scanners, typically capable of scanning an area as wide as a normal letter and much longer remain available as of [update].

Handheld 3D scanners are used in industrial design, reverse engineering, inspection and analysis, digital manufacturing and medical applications.

Image scanners are usually used in conjunction with a computer which controls the scanner and stores scans. Small portable scanners, either roller-fed or "glide-over" hand -operated, operated by batteries and with storage capability, are available for use away from a computer; stored scans can be transferred later.

Many can scan both small documents such as business cards and till receipts, and letter-sized documents.

The higher-resolution cameras fitted to some smartphones can produce reasonable quality document scans by taking a photograph with the phone's camera and post-processing it with a scanning app, a range of which are available for most phone operating systems , to whiten the background of a page, correct perspective distortion so that the shape of a rectangular document is corrected, convert to black-and-white, etc.

Many such apps can scan multiple-page documents with successive camera exposures and output them either as a single file or multiple page files.

Some smartphone scanning apps can save documents directly to online storage locations, such as Dropbox and Evernote , send via email or fax documents via email-to-fax gateways.

Color scanners typically read RGB red-green-blue color data from the array. Color depth varies depending on the scanning array characteristics, but is usually at least 24 bits.

High quality models have bits of color depth. Another qualifying parameter for a scanner is its resolution , measured in pixels per inch ppi , sometimes more accurately referred to as Samples per inch spi.

Instead of using the scanner's true optical resolution , the only meaningful parameter, manufacturers like to refer to the interpolated resolution , which is much higher thanks to software interpolation.

As of [update] , a high-end flatbed scanner can scan up to ppi and drum scanners have an optical resolution of between 3, and 24, ppi.

The effective resolution of most all consumer flatbed scanners is considerably lower than the manufactures' given optical resolution. Manufacturers often claim interpolated resolutions as high as 19, ppi; but such numbers carry little meaningful value, because the number of possible interpolated pixels is unlimited and doing so does not increase the level of captured detail.

The size of the file created increases with the square of the resolution; doubling the resolution quadruples the file size. A resolution must be chosen that is within the capabilities of the equipment, preserves sufficient detail, and does not produce a file of excessive size.

The file size can be reduced for a given resolution by using "lossy" compression methods such as JPEG , at some cost in quality. If the best possible quality is required lossless compression should be used; reduced-quality files of smaller size can be produced from such an image when required e.

Purity can be diminished by scanner noise, optical flare, poor analog to digital conversion, scratches, dust, Newton's rings , out of focus sensors, improper scanner operation, and poor software.

Drum scanners are said to produce the purest digital representations of the film, followed by high end film scanners that use the larger Kodak Tri-Linear sensors.

The third important parameter for a scanner is its density range Dynamic Range or Drange see Densitometry. A high density range means that the scanner is able to record shadow details and brightness details in one scan.

Density of film is measured on a base 10 log scale and varies between 0. The density range of negative film is up to 3. Dmax will be the densest on slide film for shadows, and densest on negative film for highlights.

Some slide films can have a Dmax close to 4. Consumer-level flatbed photo scanners have a dynamic range in the 2. Color film compresses its 12 stops of a possible 16 stops film latitude into just 2.

Kodak Vision 3 has 18 stops. So, color negative film scans the easiest of all film types on the widest range of scanners.

Because traditional black-and-white film retains the image creating silver after processing, density range can be almost twice that of color film.

This makes scanning traditional black-and-white film more difficult and requires a scanner with at least a 3. High-end photo lab flatbed scanners can reach a dynamic range of 3.

Dedicated film scanners [14] have a dynamic range between 3. By combining full-color imagery with 3D models, modern hand-held scanners are able to completely reproduce objects electronically.

The addition of 3D color printers enables accurate miniaturization of these objects, with applications across many industries and professions.

For scanner apps, the scan quality is highly dependent on the quality of the phone camera and on the framing chosen by the user of the app. Scans must virtually always be transferred from the scanner to a computer or information storage system for further processing or storage.

There are two basic issues: The file size of a scan can be up to about megabytes for a DPI 23 x 28 cm 9"x11" slightly larger than A4 paper uncompressed bit image.

Scanned files must be transferred and stored. Scanners can generate this volume of data in a matter of seconds, making a fast connection desirable.

Scanners communicate to their host computer using one of the following physical interfaces, listing roughly from slow to fast:.

During the early s professional flatbed scanners were available over a local computer network. This proved useful to publishers, print shops, etc.

This functionality largely fell out of use as the cost of flatbed scanners reduced enough to make sharing unnecessary. From all-in-one multi-purpose devices became available which were suitable for both small offices and consumers, with printing, scanning, copying, and fax capability in a single apparatus which can be made available to all members of a workgroup.

Battery-powered portable scanners store scans on internal memory; they can later be transferred to a computer either by direct connection, typically USB, or in some cases a memory card may be removed from the scanner and plugged into the computer.

There are many different scanners, and many of those scanners use different protocols. In order to simplify applications programming, some Applications programming interfaces "API" were developed.

The API presents a uniform interface to the scanner. This means that the application does not need to know the specific details of the scanner in order to access it directly.

In practice, there are often problems with an application communicating with a scanner. Either the application or the scanner manufacturer or both may have faults in their implementation of the API.

Typically, the API is implemented as a dynamically linked library. The manufacturer's part of the API is commonly called a device driver , but that designation is not strictly accurate: Rather the scanner API library translates application requests into hardware requests.

This allows batch scans and transparent network access without any special support from the device driver. TWAIN is used by most scanners.

Originally used for low-end and home-use equipment, it is now widely used for large-volume scanning. Although no software beyond a scanning utility is a feature of any scanner, many scanners come bundled with software.

Typically, in addition to the scanning utility, some type of image-editing application such as Adobe Photoshop , and optical character recognition OCR software are supplied.

OCR software converts graphical images of text into standard text that can be edited using common word-processing and text-editing software; accuracy is rarely perfect.

Some scanners, especially those designed for scanning printed documents, only work in black-and-white but most modern scanners work in color.

For the latter, the scanned result is a non-compressed RGB image, which can be transferred to a computer's memory.

The color output of different scanners is not the same due to the spectral response of their sensing elements, the nature of their light source and the correction applied by the scanning software.

While most image sensors have a linear response, the output values are usually gamma compressed. Some scanners compress and clean up the image using embedded firmware.

Once on the computer, the image can be processed with a raster graphics program such as Adobe Photoshop or the GIMP and saved on a storage device such as a hard disk.

Images are usually stored on a hard disk.

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